Every country has a system of laws and to uphold these laws there are a number of different legal institutions in each. Some countries have a wide separation between political power and power in the courts. The same can be said for a separation between religion and the law. In most industrialized countries, these instituted are independent courts, but there are also a plethora of smaller courts that can be considered to be legal institutes in their own right, but carry separate rules. Some examples would include military country, and parliaments that represent the people.
One of the larger types of legal institutes in use in the world is a judiciary court. This is a type of legal institute that has a number of judges who made decisions on disputes. In many countries this type of court is only held for extreme cases that impact a large number of people, or that could result in significant changes to the law or to constitutions. The supreme court in America is an example, where the court can overturn some state laws if it believes the laws are not compatible with the constitution. Such judiciary courts are also used to handle international law that can impact a number of countries or indeed the world.
Another type of legal institute is that of legislature. This is the type of legal institute where people are elected to make decisions on behalf of people in the country, perhaps as a representative of a region or a state. Most large countries in the world that follow this rule have two such houses, an upper and a lower house. The idea is that the upper house can act as a review of all of the laws changed and passed in the lower house, so that snap decisions and laws which only seem to benefit a section of society can be double-checked.
Military legal organizations are nothing now, but the idea of the police having their own legal institute is quite a modern creation, somewhere within the last few hundred years. The police and the military obviously have different goals and laws to adhere to when they are performing their duties as opposed to civilians. Therefore they have a separate legal institution that ensures they are not abusing any powers, and that they are doing their duty as set out by the